In the previous tutorial we created a blank white screen; now we want to display some graphics on it. In this tutorial, we will:
- Draw a circle in our window
- Define a Particle class
- Create and display a Particle object
This program builds on the code from the previous tutorial. The line numbers show where code should be added assuming the program is written exactly like the program written in the previous tutorial (including blank lines). In this tutorial and all the following tutorials, the final code is available by clicking the Code on Github link at the start of the article.
Drawing with Pygame
In Pygame there are various functions for drawing simple shapes. We will display our particles as circles so use the `pygame.draw.circle()` function. This function takes several parameters:
- A surface where the circle will be drawn (here it's our screen)
- A colour
- An (x, y) coordinate
- A radius
- A thickness (optional)
pygame.draw.circle(screen, (0,0,255), (150, 50), 15, 1)
This draws a blue ((0,0,255) is blue in RGB notation) circle centred at (150, 50), with radius 15 and thickness of 1 pixel. Note that this function must be called after the screen.fill(background_colour) command and before the flip() command. If you run the program now you should see something like this (I also changed the title of window, but it's not important).
If you’re not familiar with how computer displays work, you might have expected the circle to be near the bottom of the screen, since the particle's y-coordinate is 50 and the screen is 200 units high. However, on a computer display, the origin (0, 0) is in the top, left of the screen, with the x-axis increasing from left-to-right and the y-axis increasing from top-to-bottom; the circle is therefore centred 50 pixels down from the top of the screen.
The Particle object
In our final simulation we will want several particles, each of which will have the same type of attributes. Thus it makes sense to define a Particle class. When we create each Particle object with the `__init__` function (note the double underscores which indicates a built-in method), we will give it an x,y coordinate and a size. The colour and line thickness will be given default values. We'll add more attributes as we go along.
class Particle: def __init__(self, (x, y), size): self.x = x self.y = y self.size = size self.colour = (0, 0, 255) self.thickness = 1
Next we add a `display()` method to our Particle object that will draw it (as a circle) on the screen.
def display(self): pygame.draw.circle(screen, self.colour, (self.x, self.y), self.size, self.thickness)
Now we can remove the `pygame.draw.circle()` call and replace it by code that creates a particle object (defining its x, y coordinates and size) then calling its `display()` method. If you're not familiar with object-oriented programming, this may seem more long winded, but it will make building on our program a lot easier later on.
my_first_particle = Particle((150, 50), 15) my_first_particle.display()
If you run the program now, it should look exactly the same as before. However, in the next tutorial I'll show you how the code now can be easily changed to display many more circles. I'll also introduce the random module which is very handy when creating simulations.